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液压机与气压机不同及各自的优缺点

液压机与气压机不同及各自的优缺点

作者:admin    来源:未知    发布时间:2020-07-11 23:37    浏览量:

 

液压机优点:

1、从结构上看,其单位重量的输出功率和单位尺寸输出功率在四类传动方式中是力压群芳的,有很大的力矩惯量比,在传递相同功率的情况下,液压传动装置的体积小、重量轻、惯性小、结构紧凑、布局灵活。

2、从工作性能上看,速度、扭矩、功率均可无级调节,动作响应性快,能迅速换向和变速,调速范围宽,调速范围可达100:l到2000:1;动作快速性好,控制、调节比较简单,操纵比较方便、省力,便于与电气控制相配合,以及与CPU(计算机)的连接,便于实现自动化。

3、从使用维护上看,元件的自润滑性好,易实现过载保护与保压,安全可靠;元件易于实现系列化、标准化、通用化。

4、所有采用液压技术的设备安全可靠性好。

5、经济:液压技术的可塑性和可变性很强,可以增加柔性生产的柔度,和容易对生产程序进行改变和调整,液压元件相对说来制造成本也不高,适应性比较强。

6、液压易与微机控制等新技术相结合,构成“机-电-液-光”一体化已成为世界发展的潮流,便于实现数字化。

 

液压机缺点:

任何事物都是一分为二的,液压传动也不例外:

1)液压传动因有相对运动表面不可避免地存在泄漏,同时油液不是绝对不可压缩的,加上油管等弹性变形,液压传动不能得到严格的传动比,因而不能用于如加工螺纹齿轮等机床的内联传动链中。

2)在高温和低温条件下,采用液压传动有一定的困难。

3)为防止漏油以及为满足某些性能上的要求,液压元件制造精度要求高,给使用与维修保养带来一定困难。

 

气压机优点:

1、以空气为工作介质,工作介质获得比较容易,用后的空气排到大气中,处理方便.

2、因空气的粘度很小(约为液压油动力粘度的万分之一),其损失也很小,所以便于集中供气、远距离输送。

3、工作环境适应性好,特别在易燃、易爆、多尘埃、强磁、辐射、振动等恶劣工作环境中,比液压、电子、电气控制优越。

4、成本低,过载能自动保护。

 

气压机缺点:

1、由于空气具有可压缩性,因此工作速度稳定性稍差。但采用气液联动装置会得到较满意的效果。

2、因工作压力低(一般为0.31.0MPa),又因结构尺寸不宜过大,总输出力不宜大于10~40kN。

3、噪声较大,在高速排气时要加消声器。

4、气动装置中的气信号传递速度在声速以内比电子及光速慢,因此,气动控制系统不宜用于元件级数过多的复杂回路。

 

 

 

Advantages of hydraulic press:

1. From the structure point of view, the output power per unit weight and output power per unit size of the four types of transmission modes are the most powerful, with a large ratio of moment and inertia. Under the condition of transmitting the same power, the hydraulic transmission device is small in size, light in weight, small in inertia, compact in structure and flexible in layout.

2. From the aspect of working performance, speed, torque and power can be adjusted steplessly, with fast response, fast reversing and speed changing, wide speed range, speed range of 100:1 to 2000:1; good action speed, simple control and adjustment, convenient operation and labor saving, easy to cooperate with electrical control and connect with CPU (computer), which is convenient to realize automation.

3. From the point of use and maintenance, the components have good self lubrication, easy to realize overload protection and pressure maintaining, safe and reliable; the components are easy to realize serialization, standardization and generalization.

4. All the equipment with hydraulic technology is safe and reliable.

5. Economy: the plasticity and variability of hydraulic technology are very strong, which can increase the flexibility of flexible production, and it is easy to change and adjust the production process. The manufacturing cost of hydraulic components is relatively low, and the adaptability is relatively strong.

6. Hydraulic pressure is easy to combine with new technologies such as microcomputer control to form the integration of "mechanical, electrical, hydraulic and optical", which has become the trend of world development and is easy to realize digitization.

Disadvantages of hydraulic press:

Everything is divided into two parts, hydraulic transmission is no exception

1) Because of the relative moving surface of hydraulic transmission, there is inevitably leakage, and the oil is not absolutely incompressible. Coupled with the elastic deformation of oil pipe, the hydraulic transmission can not get strict transmission ratio, so it can not be used in the inline transmission chain of machine tools such as processing thread gears.

2) It is difficult to use hydraulic transmission under high and low temperature conditions.

3) In order to prevent oil leakage and meet some performance requirements, the manufacturing accuracy of hydraulic components is required to be high, which brings certain difficulties to the use and maintenance.

Advantages of air compressor:

1. Using air as the working medium, the working medium is easy to obtain, and the used air is discharged into the atmosphere

2. Because the viscosity of air is very small (about one thousandth of the dynamic viscosity of hydraulic oil), its loss is also very small, so it is convenient for centralized gas supply and long-distance transportation.

3. Working environment adaptability is good, especially in the flammable, explosive, dusty, strong magnetic, radiation, vibration and other harsh working environment, better than hydraulic, electronic, electrical control.

4. Low cost, overload protection.

Disadvantages of air compressor:

1. Due to the compressibility of air, the stability of working speed is slightly poor. However, satisfactory results can be obtained by using gas-liquid linkage device.

2. Because of the low working pressure (generally 0.31.0mpa) and the size of the structure should not be too large, the total output should not be greater than 10-40kn.

3. The noise is big, so muffler should be added when exhausting at high speed.

4. The transmission speed of pneumatic signal in pneumatic device is slower than that of electron and light within the speed of sound. Therefore, pneumatic control system is not suitable for complex circuits with too many components.

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