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液压机结构分析,液压机的分类

液压机结构分析,液压机的分类

作者:admin    来源:未知    发布时间:2020-07-11 23:29    浏览量:

液压机驱动系统

液压机的驱动系统主要有泵直接驱动和泵-蓄能器驱动两种型式。泵直接驱动系统的泵向液压缸提供高压工作液体,配流阀用来改变供液方向,溢流阀用来调节系统的限定压强,同时起安全溢流作用。这种驱动系统环节少,结构简单,压强能按所需的工作力自动增减,减少了电能消耗,但须由液压机的最大工作力和最高工作速度来决定泵及其驱动电机的容量。这种型式的驱动系统多用于中小型液压机,也有用泵直接驱动的大型(如120000千牛)自由锻造水压机。

泵-蓄能器驱动  在这种驱动系统中有一个或一组蓄能器。当泵所供给的高压工作液有余量时,由蓄能器储存;而当供给量不足于需要时,便由蓄能器补充供给。采用这种系统可以按高压工作液的平均用量选用泵和电动机的容量,但因为工作液的压强是恒定的,电能消耗量较大,并且系统的环节多,结构比较复杂。这种驱动系统多用于大型液压机,或者用一套驱动系统驱动数台液压机。

液压机结构型式

按作用力的方向区分,液压机有立式和卧式两种。多数液压机为立式,挤压用液压机则多用卧式。按结构型式分,液压机有双柱、四柱、八柱、焊接框架和多层钢带缠绕框架等型式,中、小型立式液压机还有用C型架式的。C型架式液压机三面敞开,操作方便,但刚性差。冲压用的焊接框架式液压机刚性好,前后敞开,但左右封闭。在上传动的立式四柱自由锻造液压机中,油缸固定在上梁中,柱塞与活动横梁刚性连接,活动横梁由立柱导向,在工作液的压强作用下上下移动。横梁上有可以前后移动的工作台。在活动横梁下和工作台面上分别安装上砧和下砧。工作力由上、下横梁和立柱组成的框架承受。 采用泵-蓄能器驱动的大、中型的自由锻水压机常采用三个工作缸,以得到三级工作力。工作缸外还设有向上施加力的平衡缸和回程缸。

液压机的分类

按结构形式现主要分为:四柱式、单柱式(C型)、卧式、立式框架、万能液压机等。

按用途主要分为金属成型、折弯、拉伸、冲裁、粉末(金属,非金属)成型、压装、挤压等。

热锻液压机

大型锻造液压机是能够完成各种自由锻造工艺的锻造设备,是锻造行业使用最广泛的设备之一。目前有800T、1600T、2000T、2500T、3150T、4000T、5000T等系列规格的锻造液压机。

四柱液压机

该液压机适用于可塑性材料的压制工艺。如粉末制品成型、塑料制品成型、冷(热)挤压金属成型、薄板拉伸以及横压、弯压、翻透、校正等工艺。

四柱液压机可分为四柱两梁液压机、四柱三梁液压机、四柱四梁液压机等。

单臂液压机(单柱液压机)

可扩展工作范围,利用三面空间,加长液压缸行程(可选装),最大可伸缩260mm-800mm,可预置工作压力;液压系统散热装置。

龙门式液压机

可对机器零部件进行装配、拆卸、校直、压延、拉伸、折弯、冲孔等工作,真正实现一机多用。该机工作台能上下移动,大小扩展了机器开合高度,使用更方便。

双柱液压机

本系列产品适用于各类零部件的压装、调弯整形、压印压痕、翻边、冲孔及小零件的浅拉伸;金属粉末制品的成型等加工工艺。采用电动控制,设有点动及半自动循环,可保压延时,并具有良好的滑块导向性,操作方便、易于维修、经济耐用。根据用户的需要可增设热工仪表、顶出缸、行程数显、计数等功能。

 

 

Drive system of hydraulic press

The driving system of hydraulic press mainly includes two types: direct pump drive and pump accumulator drive. The pump of the direct drive system supplies high pressure working fluid to the hydraulic cylinder, the valve is used to change the direction of liquid supply, and the relief valve is used to adjust the limited pressure of the system, and at the same time, it plays a safe overflow role. This kind of drive system has few links and simple structure. The pressure can automatically increase or decrease according to the required working force, thus reducing the power consumption. However, the capacity of the pump and its driving motor must be determined by the maximum working force and maximum working speed of the hydraulic press. This type of drive system is mostly used in small and medium-sized hydraulic presses, as well as large-scale (such as 120000 KN) free forging hydraulic presses driven directly by pumps.

Pump accumulator drive there is one or a group of accumulators in this drive system. When the high-pressure working fluid supplied by the pump has a surplus, it is stored by the accumulator; when the supply is insufficient, it is supplied by the accumulator. With this system, the capacity of pump and motor can be selected according to the average consumption of high-pressure working fluid, but because the pressure of working fluid is constant, the power consumption is large, and the system has many links and the structure is relatively complex. This kind of drive system is mostly used in large hydraulic press, or several hydraulic presses are driven by a set of drive system.

Structure type of hydraulic press

According to the direction of the force, there are two types of hydraulic press: vertical and horizontal. Most of the hydraulic presses are vertical, while the extrusion presses are mostly horizontal. According to the structure type, the hydraulic press has double column, four column, eight column, welded frame and multi-layer steel belt winding frame, etc. the medium and small vertical hydraulic press also has C-type frame type. C-frame hydraulic press is open on three sides, easy to operate, but poor rigidity. The welding frame type hydraulic press for stamping has good rigidity, open in front and back, but closed in left and right. In the vertical four column free forging hydraulic press, the oil cylinder is fixed in the upper beam, and the plunger is rigidly connected with the movable beam. The movable beam is guided by the column and moves up and down under the pressure of the working fluid. The beam has a table that can be moved back and forth. The upper anvil and the lower anvil are respectively installed under the movable crossbeam and on the worktable. The working force is borne by the frame composed of upper and lower beams and columns. Large and medium-sized free forging hydraulic press driven by pump accumulator usually adopts three working cylinders to obtain three-stage working force. The working cylinder is also provided with a balance cylinder and a return cylinder which exert force upward.

Classification of hydraulic press

According to the structure, it is mainly divided into: four column type, single column type (C type), horizontal, vertical frame, universal hydraulic press, etc.

It can be divided into metal forming, bending, stretching, blanking, powder (metal, non-metallic) forming, pressing, extrusion, etc.

Hot forging hydraulic press

Large forging hydraulic press is one of the most widely used equipment in forging industry, which can complete all kinds of free forging process. At present, there are 800t, 1600t, 2000t, 2500t, 3150T, 4000t and 5000t forging hydraulic presses.

Four column hydraulic press

The hydraulic press is suitable for the pressing process of plastic materials. Such as powder products molding, plastic products molding, cold (hot) extrusion metal forming, sheet stretching and cross pressing, bending pressing, turning through, correction and other processes.

Four column hydraulic press can be divided into four column two beam hydraulic press, four column three beam hydraulic press, four column four beam hydraulic press, etc.

Single arm hydraulic press (single column hydraulic press)

The hydraulic cylinder stroke can be extended (optional) by using the three-dimensional space, and the maximum telescopic range is 260mm-800mm, and the working pressure can be preset; the cooling device of the hydraulic system.

Gantry hydraulic press

The machine parts can be assembled, disassembled, straightened, calendered, stretched, bent, punched and so on, so as to realize the multi-purpose of one machine. The working table of the machine can move up and down, and the size of the machine expands the opening and closing height of the machine, so it is more convenient to use.

Double column hydraulic press

This series of products are suitable for pressing, bending and shaping of various parts, indentation, flanging, punching and shallow drawing of small parts, forming of metal powder products, etc. It adopts electric control, with inching and semi-automatic circulation, which can keep pressure and delay, and has good slide guiding property. It is easy to operate, easy to maintain, economical and durable. According to the needs of users, it can add thermal instrument, ejection cylinder, stroke digital display, counting and other functions.

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